Many librarians are reviewing their collection arrangements in the light of the changing roles of libraries, which involve considerations of the move from hard copy to digital resources and new views about the ways the library itself should operate. Each library develops its programs to suit its users, and for school libraries the educational purpose of their facilities and collections is paramount. How are school library collections best arranged to support the learning objectives of subject areas and the contextual learning of expert information practices? The thinking of Vygotsky and Bruce are used here to explore how a school library might structure its programs and arrange its collections for best learning outcomes.